How do we end sexual violence? The answer may be that we have to change the culture we are living in to make sexual violence everyone’s problem.
Most college students have already taken their mandatory sexual assault prevention training and education course this year, but will it do anything to stop sexual violence? The facts are sobering: 15-20% of college women still report unwanted sexual interactions and the number of rapes has not decreased since the 1980’s.
Dr. John Foubert, National President of One in Four, and author of seven books on preventing sexual assault, says that college is way too late to start addressing the attitudes that create an environment for sexual violence. High schools need to educate their students on preventing sexual violence. Ashley Warner, author of The Year After: A Memoir, says that education should start teaching students about consent, and what “no” means, in kindergarten.
Another barrier for preventing sexual assault is that it is framed as a women’s problem. Most education focuses on how women can protect themselves from sexual violence. Dorothy Edwards, Executive Director, Green Dot, Etc., believes that men can be women’s greatest ally in stopping the sexual violence because the majority of men do not commit sexual violence.
The bystander in a situation has more power than they think. Dr. Foubert says that a man’s friends have a great influence on him. Edwards reminds us that many men are too shy or intimidated to stop sexual violence. Which makes the need for a shift from saying nothing to stepping in. Edwards says that many organizations have ignored the barriers that society has placed to prevent bystanders from getting involved in these situations. Education should address how to remove the barriers or give bystanders the tools to overcome them.
Dr. John Foubert, Professor of Higher Education and Student Affairs, Oklahoma State University, National President, One in Four, and author of 7 books on preventing sexual assault
Ashley Warner, psychoanalyst and author, The Year After: A Memoir
Dorothy Edwards, ExecutiveDirector, Green Dot, Etc.
Many teenage boys are labeled as lazy because they spend too much time online, playing video games or watching TV.. Dr. Adam Price, author He’s Not Lazy: Empowering Your Son to Believe in Himself, says these actually want to do well in school, but are afraid of failure. To deal with this pressure, and the issues that come along with it, they choose to opt-out. They choose activities that don’t give them anxiety like school does.
Dr. Adam Price says kids need to be internally motivated to put more energy into school, and suggests an approach using the three Cs. The first is Competence, the belief you can do something motivates people to want to do it. Teach students the growth mindset — meaning that you can always get better, and there is no limit. The second C, Control, involves allowing the student to take control of some choices as long as they also deal with the consequences. The third C is Connection, meaning that the adult needs to listen to the teenager, to understand and respect them.
Dr. Price also says that parents should let kids fail because that is how they learn. When the parents become more comfortable with failure and uncertainty, it allows their kids to grow and become successful adults.
Dr. Adam Price, author, He’s Not Lazy: Empowering Your Son to Believe in Himself
Colleges are required by Federal law to present anti-sexual assault training to new students, but rather than instilling “no means no,” some experts think we need to do much more to enlist men to help prevent sexual assault. Experts discuss how it can be done by making men allies, rather than regarding them as potential perpetrators, and through bystander training.
Teenage Boys: They’re Not Lazy
Teenage boys are often labeled as lazy by parents who see that their homework isn’t done and their attitude is one of disinterest. An expert psychologist explains the inner workings of teen boys and how parents can bring out the best in them.
In the last fifty years, the number of people who smoke has gone down tremendously, but smoking accounts for one in every five deaths in America. The FDA wants to lower this by mandating a cut in the amount of nicotine in cigarettes. But will this merely encourage smokers to find alternate sources of nicotine?
According to Dr. Eric Donny, if an eighty-five percent reduction of nicotine happens in cigarettes, w will see fewer smokers smoking, and fewer kids getting addicted. Dr. Neal Benowitz says that the plan to lower nicotine in cigarettes might lead some to find a “healthier” alternative like e-cigarettes. Dr. Joshua Sharfstein says that e-cigarettes have been in the middle of a great debate, with some asking whether they are a great tool to quit smoking or a gateway substance for kids to try real cigarettes. The reduction might push people to cleaner forms of nicotine consumption, perhaps even quitting smoking.
Dr. Stanton Glantz, says that this reduction is not good for the future because it pushes back regulation of e-cigarettes. Dr. Glantz believes the FDA is overselling the reduction in cigarettes and giving e-cigarettes a pass on nicotine regulation. Some also think that this would create a black market of full-strength cigarettes. Dr. Glantz does think this is a step in the right direction, even though it does not solve the problem.
America is not the only country that is considering this. Dr. Benowitz says that Canada and New Zealand have been talking about a reduction too. Any one country starting this could create a domino effect on the whole world, leading not just to a healthier country, but a healthier world.
Dr. Eric Donny, Director, Center for Evaluation of Nicotine and Cigarettes, University of Pittsburgh
Dr. Neal Benowitz, Professor of Medicine and Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences and Chief, Division of Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco
Dr. Joshua Sharfstein, Professor of the Practice, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health and former FDA Deputy Commissioner
Dr. Stanton Glantz, Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco and Director, Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education.
If medical experts aren’t sure which foods are healthy, how do we decide what to eat? Dr. Charles Katzenberg, a cardiologist at the Sarver Heart Center, says he has discussions about heart healthy food every day with his patients. There is not a national consensus on heart healthy food. This means that different people will give different answers, and no one seems to know what to do. Most cardiologists agree that a good diet will help a person. While the same cardiologists admit to having minimal or no training at all on nutrition in medical school or at their residencies.
Dr. Stephen Devries of the Gaples Institute says while some nutritional knowledge is common sense, other information needs to be taught. If medical professionals aren’t properly trained, they won’t be able to suggest effective interventions. Why is nutrition not taught to a cardiologist? According to Dr. Katzenberg, nutrition isn’t taught to cardiologists, because their training programs prioritize other information.. Both experts agree that the issue starts with the system not putting enough emphasis on preventative measures. The key to solving this problem is for medical professionals to work together with other specialists, like nutritionists, who might have relevant training that would benefit the patient.
Dr. Charles Katzenberg, University of Arizona Sarver Heart Center
Dr. Stephen Devries, Executive Director, Gaples Institute for Integrative Cardiology