Hormones were unknown until a little more than 100 years ago, and experts admit we still have a lot to learn. An expert author details the discovery of hormones and how our growing knowledge has shaped treatment of many diseases and conditions.
Dr. Randi Hutter Epstein, Yale University, Columbia University, and author, Aroused: The History of Hormones and How They Control Just About Everything
Since their creation, vaccines have had a long history of being controversial. Many of the problems surrounding vaccines that we hear about have to do with recent controversies. Yet, their conception has been the center of ethical debates since the 1960s. The founding of vaccines is an important point in history that has allowed for the development of understanding the balance between need and ethics in medicine.
Vaccines were founded from the eminent need to stop the spread of the next horrific epidemic. Dr. Meredith Wadman, reporter for Science magazine and author of The Vaccine Race: Science, Politics, and the Human Costs of Defeating Disease, explains that the devastation of the Rubella epidemic that occurred from 1964 to 1965 influenced the race to find a vaccine to help prevent the breakout of another epidemic. However creating vaccines involves reproducing the viruses which can only be done with cells. Originally, scientists used monkey kidney cells, but Dr. Wadman explains that these were expensive to obtain and they came with a number of safety issues. So, Leonard Hayflick, a researcher, developed the idea of using human cells, a concept that, Dr. Wadman, explains has garnered the attention of ethics debates because he used cells obtained from a fetus without the consent of the women who had given up the fetus. The cells from this fetus that were used in the 1960s are still being used today in order to develop more vaccines that have been used to save hundreds of millions of people.
How do scientists justify the ethics of this decision to people who do not agree with abortion? Dr. Wadman explains that it is important to look at the larger picture because it is not an ongoing process. Since 1960, this one fetus has been used to save the lives of a number of people. But, this reasoning should not be used to justify all unethical matters. Dr. Wadman explains that the race to find a vaccine was later used to rationalize an abuse of power during World War II in which researchers in America began to test on institutionalized people, prisoners, and even premature newborns and intellectually disabled children, in order to create a vaccine against influenza. At the time, these practices were not regulated, but over time protections and rules were implemented that no longer made it possible for experiments of this nature to take place. While the need for a vaccine can appear to be vital, especially when there are lives on the line, it is important that researchers do not forfeit ethics.
Dr. Meredith Wadman, reporter at Science magazine and author of The Vaccine Race: Science, Politics, and the Human Costs of Defeating Disease
Researchers have found that severe emotional trauma in childhood triggers physical disease later in life, and has a cumulative effect. An award-winning science writer who has researched the topic discusses findings.
Donna Jackson Nakazawa, author, Childhood Disrupted: How Your Biography Becomes Your Biology, and How You Can Heal
Addiction has become undoubtedly entangled in modern American society. Whether it’s gambling, food, sex, technology, alcohol or drugs, the deadly disease hijacks the human brain with severe ramifications. Recent eruptions in the number of opiate addicts and overdoses has shined an even brighter spotlight on this critical public health issue.
There is an inclination to equate addiction to a moral failing, lack of willpower, or simply bad judgment. Dr. Rita Goldstein, Professor of Psychiatry and Neuroscience at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, explains that due to our ‘evolutionary legacy,’ the reward center in the brain is designed to make us feel good when we do things like eat food or have sex. Yet, with prolonged addiction, a chemical imbalance occurs, and as a result, the reward center takes priority over rational thinking or the threat of negative consequence. When addictive behavior is continually reinforced, further imbalance occurs, weakening the part of the brain meant to counterbalance impulsive behavior.
The good news; Dr. Anna Rose Childress, Research Professor of Psychology in Psychiatry at the Pennsylvania School of Medicine, observes that with abstinence, with or without the use of medications for recovering addicts, the brain can begin rewiring pathways created in the midst of addiction. The road to recovery is not yet paved in the golden promise of a cure, but understanding the biology of addiction is a critical component of treating the disease.
Dr. Rita Goldstein, Professor of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai, New York
Dr. Anna Rose Childress, Research Professor of Psychology in Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
A variety of liver diseases may cause test results that mimic alcohol-related cirrhosis. One, known as PBC, is the second largest reason for liver transplants in women. A patient and an expert discuss.
Synopsis: Diseases apparently have distinctive odors that humans can’t detect. Researchers are using dogs, mice, rats and other animals to literally sniff out cancer and other diseases in the laboratory. In the 3rd World, rats are used to diagnose TB. Experts discuss the use of animals to diagnose disease and their efforts to build machines that can do the same thing.