Many patients arrive in the emergency room as a result of violence or car crashes—events in which police have an investigative interest. Sometimes, police needs clash with trauma care, and priorities are hashed out case by case. Experts discuss which priorities come first and when, and the procedures needed to smooth out sometimes contentious interaction.
Dr. Sara Jacoby, Assistant Professor of Family and Community Health, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing
Dr. Michael Gerardi, emergency physician and Past President, American College of Emergency Physicians
Advancements in genetic science are often clouded in ethical controversy. Often, scientists are accused of “playing God.” Experts discuss a new platform where scientists and public can debate it, and from which education can be disseminated.
Dr. Ting Wu, Professor of Genetics, Harvard Medical School
After attempts to use non-human primates as a source of scarce organs for transplant, doctors have turned to pigs for a variety of reasons. They’re now making great progress against the largest hurdle—rejection. One of the world’s foremost xenotransplantation experts discusses how the process might work and what the future might look like for millions of potential organ and tissue recipients.
Dr. David Cooper, Professor of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Co-Director, UAB Xenotransplantation Program
Since their creation, vaccines have had a long history of being controversial. Many of the problems surrounding vaccines that we hear about have to do with recent controversies. Yet, their conception has been the center of ethical debates since the 1960s. The founding of vaccines is an important point in history that has allowed for the development of understanding the balance between need and ethics in medicine.
Vaccines were founded from the eminent need to stop the spread of the next horrific epidemic. Dr. Meredith Wadman, reporter for Science magazine and author of The Vaccine Race: Science, Politics, and the Human Costs of Defeating Disease, explains that the devastation of the Rubella epidemic that occurred from 1964 to 1965 influenced the race to find a vaccine to help prevent the breakout of another epidemic. However creating vaccines involves reproducing the viruses which can only be done with cells. Originally, scientists used monkey kidney cells, but Dr. Wadman explains that these were expensive to obtain and they came with a number of safety issues. So, Leonard Hayflick, a researcher, developed the idea of using human cells, a concept that, Dr. Wadman, explains has garnered the attention of ethics debates because he used cells obtained from a fetus without the consent of the women who had given up the fetus. The cells from this fetus that were used in the 1960s are still being used today in order to develop more vaccines that have been used to save hundreds of millions of people.
How do scientists justify the ethics of this decision to people who do not agree with abortion? Dr. Wadman explains that it is important to look at the larger picture because it is not an ongoing process. Since 1960, this one fetus has been used to save the lives of a number of people. But, this reasoning should not be used to justify all unethical matters. Dr. Wadman explains that the race to find a vaccine was later used to rationalize an abuse of power during World War II in which researchers in America began to test on institutionalized people, prisoners, and even premature newborns and intellectually disabled children, in order to create a vaccine against influenza. At the time, these practices were not regulated, but over time protections and rules were implemented that no longer made it possible for experiments of this nature to take place. While the need for a vaccine can appear to be vital, especially when there are lives on the line, it is important that researchers do not forfeit ethics.
Dr. Meredith Wadman, reporter at Science magazine and author of The Vaccine Race: Science, Politics, and the Human Costs of Defeating Disease
Hospitals and very large medical groups are buying up independent physician practices to the point that in some areas, it’s hard to find independent doctors. Studies show purchased practices cost more for patients. Experts discuss the incentives that have prompted consolidation and moves to eliminate them.
The Vaccine Race and Ethics
Millions of lives have been saved as a result of vaccines. But in the development of desperately needed vaccines, scientists cut corners in ways that wouldn’t be allowed today. An expert discusses the balance of need and ethics in science and medicine.
Synopsis: It’s a fine line between preserving life and prolonging death. An award winning science writer discusses her experience observing how medical professionals and patients differ in their acceptance of impending death, and what families need to know to navigate the end of life toward a “good death.”
Host: Nancy Benson. Guest: Katy Butler, author, Knocking on Heaven’s Door: The Path to a Better Way of Death