19-02 Segment 1: Autism in Girls

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Experts have believed that autism affects four times as many boys as girls, but the ratio may not actually be quite that high. Doctors are learning that autism shows up differently in girls’ behavior as a result of brain differences. This leaves many girls with autism undiagnosed. Experts discuss how it appears in girls and the consequences of those differences.


  • Dr. Thomas Frazier, Chief Science Officer, Autism Speaks
  • Dr. Rachel Loftin, Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Northwestern University
  • Dr. Kevin Pelphrey, Jefferson Scholars Foundation, Professor of Neurology, University of Virginia

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18-51 Segment 1: Amnesia

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It’s a rare thing for people to lose their memory of past events. An expert discusses why doctors believe it may occur, and a woman to whom it happened recounts her experience.


  • Naomi Jacobs, amnesia victim and author, Forgotten Girl
  • Dr. Jason Brandt, Professor of Psychiatry and Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

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Medical Notes 18-45

Medical Notes this week…

Acute myeloid leukemia, or AML is one of the deadliest cancers, with a five-year survival rate of about 25 percent… and even when a patient has a lasting remission, the disease almost always relapses. But a new study in the journal Nature Communications finds that the disease appears to be the fault of a single gene, which they’ve located. Researchers say the gene rewires the body’s entire set of blood-forming cells and tissues. They hope the breakthrough could eventually lead to a gene-targeted therapy and improve survival rates.

Scientists have discovered some of the reasons why people with obesity have a higher risk of asthma. A study in the Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology shows that inflammation in airways is greater in people with obesity. Those with obesity are also more likely to over-respond to allergens in airway muscles…causing the airways to narrow. Researchers say the discoveries may improve asthma treatment.

Teachers often contribute to a diagnosis of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in children… but a new study concludes they may be mistaking immaturity for ADHD. The study in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry shows that it’s most often the youngest kids in a classroom who are diagnosed with ADHD. Experts also say that in children who are diagnosed… it appears that some parts of the brain mature up to three years later than in kids who are not labeled.

And finally… one good way to get the vitamins you need in the future may be to chew some gum. A study in the Journal of Functional Foods shows that gum loaded with vitamins delivers enough of them to significantly raise levels in the blood. Both water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins were effectively delivered in gum… and researchers say most people think it’s a pleasant way to get nutrition.

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17-35 Segment 1: Diagnostic Mistakes

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Medical errors are the third largest cause of death in the US, and mistakes in making diagnoses are the most frequent form of error. A noted expert discusses why mistakes happen, and what doctors and patients can do to make them less frequent.


  • Dr. David Newman-Toker, Professor of Neurology, Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Director, Center for Diagnostic Excellence

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15-24 Segment 2: Photographic Memory


Synopsis: Some people who remember things extremely well may claim they have a “photographic memory,” but some experts say such a thing doesn’t really exist. Experts discuss how memory works.

Host: Lynn Holley. Guests: Dr. Barry Gordon, Professor of Neurology and Cognitive Science, Johns Hopkins University; Dr. Henry Roediger, Washington University, St. Louis.

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Click here for the transcript